Triangulation design validating quantitative data model
For example, in a study conducted with community health practitioners in Alaska, participants reported low levels of knowledge and comfort around discussing cancer pain (Cueva, Lanier, Dignan, Kuhnley, & Jenkins, 2005).
At level 3, qualitative research through focus groups and key informant interviews will provide even more refined information about perceptions of recommended and received care.
There are 2.9 million people who report exclusive and an additional 1.6 million who report partial American Indian ancestry in the United States. However, there is a scarcity of published literature exploring the experience, epidemiology, and management of pain among American Indians (Haozous, Knobf, & Brant, 2010; Haozous & Knobf, 2013; Jimenez, Garroutte, Kundu, Morales, & Buchwald, 2011).
They are a diverse group, residing in 35 states and organized into 564 federally recognized tribes (U. Barriers to effective research into chronic pain management among American Indians include the relatively small number of American Indian patients in any circumscribed area or tribe, the limitations of individual databases, and widespread racial misclassification.
The definition of mixed methods, from the first issue of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, is “research in which the investigator collects and analyzes data, integrates the findings, and draws inferences using both qualitative and quantitative approaches or methods in a single study or program of inquiry” (Tashakkori & Creswell, 2007, p.4).
Mixed methods research began among anthropologists and sociologists in the early 1960s.
Mixed methods research methodologies are increasingly applied in nursing research to strengthen the depth and breadth of understanding of nursing phenomena.
Mixed methods research combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches for the broad purpose of increasing the breadth and depth of understanding.
Since the 1960s, the use of mixed methods has continued to grow in popularity (O'Cathain, 2009).