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According to these rules, the Ukrainian is transliterated as Kyiv.This has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe.
It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; first by Lithuania, followed by Poland and ultimately Russia.
The city has an extensive system of public transport and infrastructure, including the Kiev Metro.
The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders.
A hill-fortress, called Sambat (Old Turkic for "High Place") was built to defend the area.
At some point during the late 9th or early 10th century Kiev fell under the rule of Varangians (see Askold and Dir, and Oleg of Novgorod) and became the nucleus of the Rus' polity.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology.